"I no longer live in a tent. Now, I live in a house made of concrete walls instead of plastic," says 21-year-old Diba *.
"I don't needing to take a two-minute shower under the watchman's eye. attack my privacy here, security officials can't check my ID all day long. The intense hostile living environment in Nauru has disappeared.
"Australia, however, is a bigger cage."
Hundreds of asylum seekers and refugees were transferred to Australia and after a national campaign at the end of last year, all the children were taken to Australia.
The years in Nauru in the detention and processing system set by the Australian government have greatly affected their mental health.
Some were transferred only after the court order, despite medical reports and psychological review repeatedly recommending their immediate departure from the harmful situation. Inclusion is often more stringent, and refugees do not access the services that doctors say are necessary. In at least one case, a baby stopped going to child care even though doctors said it was leading to significant improvements.
"Prolonged incarceration can cause serious mental health problems and recovery does not always occur by moving into the community, as is often required by specialist treatment," says Dr Nick Kowalenko, from to the faculty of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists' child and adolescent psychiatry.
Diba was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and anhedonia. She has difficulty sleeping, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, memory loss and concentration, and repeated thoughts of suicide.
She was transferred to Australia in November for acute mental health care, after five years in Nauru.
Under the rule of detention in the Diba community, "he shall not engage in any vocational study or training … [or] in unpaid work, such as volunteering, unless approved by department ".
"There are many opportunities, but my access to them is prohibited. The Australian sanctions are still punishable by us, but by others & # 39; other types of abduction," he said.
"I was keen to become a lawyer. I inquired from a dozen universities about the possibility of my enrollment, but I found that impossible.
" I have experienced tremendous tragic events, as a young girl, as a child. But, the exception to education creates endless regret in me. I feel empty and numb. I am no dream girl now. ”
Kowalenko says:" Social isolation is a risk factor for depression and depression. PTSD affects bad concentration. If a child misses an opportunity for education it can affect them. severely and partially recoverable.
"Being part of a community means actively participating in civil and social life and most of that, at age 16, for example, occurs in educational settings.
"Children deprived of educational opportunities are worse and recovery is more difficult and longer, and children are at greater risk of not recovering or making only a partial recovery. work in education is a key element to successful recovery. ”
Three-year-old Arman and his 18-month-old brother were born in Nauru to Iranian refugee parents.
An examination of senior medical health clinician, spotted by Guardian Australia, said Arman has been exposed to South Australia's mental health services with "significant emotional discipline and sensory issues in the context of a mental disorder." inclusion, past and ongoing trauma, long-term detention, and parental mental health issues. in their ability to establish a structure and routine for [Arman]. ".
The Nauruan environment was" scary and unpredictable ", the family told the medical examiner.
" The family was exposed to domestic violence in nearby homes. , as well as community violence. [Arman’s mother Termeh’s] mental health continued to decline after the birth of [Arman] in this context. ”
Termeh said his son's behavior included gouging walls with sharp tools, sliding curtains, and falling fridges with his scooter.
October, the family was transferred to Adelaide for medical treatment, and provided status resolution support services: a payment of nearly 80% of Newstart, residential and health care, as well as case management services. Childcare is an "additional service", according to the department.
Arman was placed on outpatient care, which a report said resulted in "obvious improvements."
The senior clinician has strongly advocated for the continuation of child care as an "integral part of the treatment process", suggesting that if he were deprived of the childcare experience there would be a "significant deterioration in family functioning" ".
Despite this, childcare has not stopped, Termeh said.
"After three months, without explanation, our housekeeper informed us that the government had stopped supporting it and that Arman would not be able to attend childcare again." He said.
The Home Department said to Guardian Australia that child care was facilitated only by its approval.
"Additional services are approved if there is evidence that the service is needed, and all other alternatives are being explored by the parent at for the first time, "said a spokeswoman. 19659002] "Providers should clearly explain why childcare is necessary and show that all alternative arrangements are available for parental exploration for the first time."
Child care is not required when there are two parents, or if the other seniors in the household or family network can help babysit, he said.
"If a family's circumstances improve and childcare is no longer needed, the department may change approved for additional services. "
Venus, an Iranian refugee girl who arrived in Nauru at the age of nine, moved to Australia when she was 14 with her family. She was admitted to Brisbane Children’s Hospital upon arrival, and is currently living on a community detention visa with her mother in Brisbane.
"Except for school, Venus has no other activity," her mother, Tara, said.
"I'm not allowed to work and I can't do any activity to improve my daughter's condition. We live in marginal suburbs. It's a two-hour drive from my doctor's office."  According to hospital documents found by Guardian Australia, Venus was diagnosed with "adjustment disorder and reaction to severe fatigue as a result of prolonged confinement with fear-free association".
"Regular Venus drew, releasing disturbing images that under ordinary circumstances would be & # 39; a highly-known sign & # 39; guaranteeing immediate psychiatric assessment and possible hospitalization, "said Dr Barri Phatarfod, founder and president of the Doctor for Refugees.  Venus room while in Nauru confined" src = "https: //i.guim .co.uk / img / media / f72aea2e985aa6e984c57b9b24dda0a22f308201 / 0_0_1280_960 / master / 1280.jpg? width = 300 & quality = 85 & auto = format & fit = max & s = d620b3058c2f8d8e445a9a5682c2ea19902c2ea19902c2ea19902c2ea19902c2ea1990c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2790c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2990c2ea2790c2ea2990c12ea2990c2ea2790c2ea2990c12ea2990c2ea2790c12ea2790c </i>
Doctors linked her stress and trauma to living in Nauru and a widespread sense of hopelessness.
"It's hard for me to find a meaning for my life," says Venus. "I'm not excluded from the program my relatives have participated in, for planning their future studies."
Venus said every time he talked to his housemate, they said they were obliged to tell him that he needed to return to Nauru.
Phatarford states that children and adolescents may need years of intensive mental health intervention, regardless of the outcome. it is extremely damaging to the psychological and very difficult to repair if they are finally removed, "he said." These children are becoming adults and we are actively creating a sub-generation of traumatized adults who may not reach their full potential. Is that what we want as a nation – to create more problems, rather than to find solutions? ”
* Names changed
Further reporting by Helen Davidson
In Australia, crisis support service Lifeline is 13 11 14; Helpline children 1800 55 1800; Beyond Blue 1300 22 4636. In the US, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is 1-800-273-8255. In the UK, Samaritans can contact 116 123.