Paul Chevalier, one of the study co-authors published in Science explained how polarization can help us:
"Polarization is a feature of light – Based on that change, polarization can help us with 3D rebuilding of something, to estimate the depth, texture and shape of it, and to recognize things that man did from natural things, even with both shapes and colors.
Unlike the large and large polarization cameras used today, the one developed by researchers at Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) is about the size of a and even with a lens and a protective case, it's just as big as a small lunchbox. Researchers use nanoscale structures to design a small device and not enough which is complicated to be included in existing imaging systems, such as one of your phones.
They believe that it can be used with autonomous vehicles to give them help in terms of seeing things on the road. It can also be used to provide planes and satellites with the ability to detect hidden objects or to distinguish between man-made and natural structures. In other words, they believe that their research is a game changer and their camera can enable the broad adoption of polarization imaging.