In fact, the whole attack seems to have been fixed for the age of social media. Before it took place, a post on anonymous message board 8chan – a particularly no law forum that often features racist and extremist posts – it seems to preview the terror. It is linked to an 87-page manifesto full of anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim ideas, and directed users on a Facebook page hosted on the live stream.
The attacks occurred in the unlikely location of Christchurch, New Zealand, which is still trying to recover after a devastating earthquake that has caused thousands of buildings and killed nearly 200 people in 2011. the city's population fell sharply after that event. The disbursement was raised by migrants, many employers to help rebuild the city. New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said after the shooting "many of those directly affected" were likely to be migrants or refugees.
But this attack is almost beyond Christchurch. This is about increasing the white supremacy online and the power of social media in the spread of that message.
An internet-driven hate
At the first glance, the "manifesto" of the shooter seems to be reminiscent of former white nationalists who will die like Anders Breivik, a distant terrorist assigned in 201
But this document is remarkable in the pronunciation of sarcastic language, deliberate red herrings and allusions in meme's online culture, suggesting the evolution of the nationalist rage on the internet.
"But this manifesto is a trap itself, placed for publishers seeking a sense behind this abominable crime," Evans added. "There is truth there, and important implications for the radicalization of the shooter, but it was buried under a good deal, for a lack of a better word," shitposting. ""
In other words, the whole thing can be described as a great exercise on deadly trolling.
Take another example. Before the attack, the gunman told his online audience to subscribe to PewDiePie's YouTube channel, with 89 million followers on the platform. PewDiePie, a Swedish gaming YouTuber whose real name is Felix Kjellberg, has been in the past promoted alt-right themes and earned a critique for the pride of an anti-Semitic channel on YouTube.
But in deflecting potential criticism for marvelous fury, he was forced to draw attention to it, Lopatto said. If one of his 17 million followers had missed the shootings before his post, they were quite aware of it afterwards, he writes.
Lee Jarvis, co-editor of the journal Critical Studies in Terrorism, says that the internet has provided people with minorities who believe in a space to connect with other like-minded people to a way that can make their world look normal.
"There are fears that if you have a small number of people with the same ideas, the ideas feel more legitimate and widespread than they actually are," says Jarvis.
The fact that the documents have laced with internet jokes, references and memes underlines that many white supremacists are radicalized by interacting with each other online, he adds.
The manifesto also sarcastically credits relatively anodyne video games, such as Spyro the Dragon and Fortnite, causing extremist attacks – which seem to weaken the popular perception that violent gaming culture has radicalizing effect.
"I doubt the video games have a direct role in the terrorist attacks," says Jarvis. "But the populist culture that anyone uses shapes how about their daily life."
The gaming culture is certainly present in the practice and style of the killing on Friday – the shotgun shot is reminiscent of first person shoot & em up games.
A tool for terrorists?
Social media has become increasingly the co-opt of terrorists over the years. In 2013, militant Al-Shabaab-tweets live the Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya. By posting updates as militants began to buy buyers, they took control of the story far from the media and bystanders.
"They want the audience – they always go where the largest audience can be traditional media or can be massive social media platforms."
After Friday's attack, Mia Garlick, a spokeswoman for Facebook New Zealand, said videos that appeared to show Christchurch shootings were taken from platform.
"The New Zealand Police alerted us to a video on Facebook shortly after the livestream started and we quickly removed the Facebook and Instagram accounts of the shooter and the video," said the spokeswoman.
However, hours after the attack, CNN found more videos on social media platforms including Twitter.
Tom Chen, a cyber security professor at City University in London, says the European Commission has pressed social media companies to "lower terrorist propaganda within an hour." There are threats of possible future fines for non-compliance, "because most distribution occurs within the first two hours of uploading a new video," he added.
Chen says that platforms like Twitter and Facebook rely on automated software to remove such materials. "If the terrorist video looks like a video game, it would be difficult for an automated identifier to tell the difference between terrorist video and a video game," he said.
For others, the idea of rolling back like technologies or setting them is a violation of our liberties.
"It has been raised before debates around the live broadcast of suicide," says Jarvis. "To one side of the company is responsible for how people use their technology. The flip side concerns concerns around censorship and who is vetted and how they are vetted."
Technology like cars can also be used by people to inflict damage on others, Jarvis added, but enforced laws to promote their safe use. "It depends on how much danger we are willing to live."